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A Brief Introduction to National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, State Oceanic Administration, People’s Republic of China

April,2009- Before the 50th Anniversary of NMEMC

With seasons changed and years shuttled, National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center (hereinafter referred to as the Monitoring Center) has tided over its long journey of half century’s development. However, it seems to be like a flash.
? ? With the vigorous development of Chinese marine cause, the Monitoring Center will celebrate the 50th Anniversary on April 22nd, 2009, in the great course of reinvigorating China through marine resource development.
Since starting work at the rough marine station 50 years ago, the staff for generations has offered their utmost efforts to protect the ecological environment of our coastal areas and territorial seas, and the Monitoring Center keeps on developing and strengthening by overcoming all kind of challenges and difficulties. Gradually, it becomes a state-level operational center with first-rate facilities, integrated disciplines, reasonable personnel structure, and definite function orientation, and finally, the Monitoring Center welcomes its harvest season.
Through the 50-year exploring, struggling and accumulating, the Monitoring Center has achieved illustrious accomplishments, and recorded its contributions in the development history of the national marine career.

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Chapter I:Look Back on History-to Step on the Blue Journey
? ?Along with mountains and seas, National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center lies beside the charming Bay of Lingshui, which locates in the southern end of the famous coastal city, Dalian.
The tides and waves in the Bay of Lingshui observed the growth of the Monitoring Center. During the past half of century, the fate of the Monitoring Center was closely related with the national marine cause, which has written down a hard, indomitable and struggling history.
? ?On April the 22nd, 1959, Institute of Oceanography under the Lianojing Branch of Chinese Academy of Sciences, as the former institution of National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, was built up near the bay of Lingshui just as a seed was shooting up from the ground. Since then on, the blue sea has its own eudemon. As the pioneer, Institute of Oceanography started its responsibility for protecting the marine environment in the foremost position of China Seas.
? ? With the rapid boosting on marine environmental protection in China, the Monitoring Center meets the good age of development. Facing this rare opportunity in the history, the Monitoring Center was driven into the climax period of great-leap-forward development by the combination forces of ideals, passions and attempts. Its outstanding achievements have recorded as follows:
On October, 1965, Institute of Oceanography was relegated to State Oceanic Administration (hereinafter referred to as SOA), and renamed as Northeast Marine Station of SOA. On August the 24th, 1979, to meet with the requirements for the development of marine environmental protection, Northeast Marine Station was expanded to Institute of Marine Environmental Protection of SOA, which was authorized by the Navy of China. On October, 1989, Institute of Marine Environmental Protection was renamed as National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center under the approval by the Ministry of Personnel, and the title and function of Institute of Marine Environmental Protection is still kept at the same time. Henceforth, the Monitoring Center enters into the booming period. During the recent 20 years, marine economy grew up rapidly in China, and the coastal environment endured great pressures as a result. Hence, according to the function assigned by SOA, the Monitoring Center played the role of organizing and management on the two professional systems of national marine environmental monitoring, and sea use monitoring and surveillance.
During the past 50 years, the Monitoring Center has made various scientific researches and technical developments to meet with the demands of management on national marine environmental protection and sea use. It gradually formed its own characteristics of multi- disciplines including marine environmental chemistry, marine environment dynamics, marine ecology, marine geology, marine engineering and sea use technology, etc. The Monitoring Center also gained a series of important scientific and technical achievements that afford powerful technical supports for all the ranks of marine administration departments to fulfill their administrative functions, and contribute greatly to marine environmental protection and sea use management in China.

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Chapter II? Found Magnificence—to Form the Marine Environmental Monitoring Network which Embraces the Nation-wide Sea Area
As a national-level technical supporting institution for marine environmental protection, one of the major responsibilities of the Monitoring Center is to organize the implementation on national marine environmental monitoring, to manage the operation of the nationwide marine environmental monitoring system, and to study the methodologies of marine environmental monitoring and assessment.
For a long time, the Monitoring Center is responsible for the following works which includes developing the annual program of national marine environmental monitoring, developing marine environment monitoring technology and making it operational, establishing the assessment criteria for marine environmental quality, making quality control and assurance on national marine environmental monitoring, managing national marine environment monitoring data and processing information products, implementing technical training, technique instructing and supporting on monitoring skills for national marine environmental monitoring system, etc. After years of exploring and practicing, the abilities of operation organizing and technical supporting have improved increasingly, which promotes the technical advancement and methodological innovation of the national marine environmental monitoring system.
With the coming of the 21st Century, the Monitoring Center began to enhance the research and development on ecological health-oriented compound monitoring technology, the research and establishment of assessment system by optimizing the compliance monitoring technology. Projects of pilot, pre-warning and demonstrating monitoring of newly- emerging pollutants and those of great ecological concerns have been launched. On this basis, the Monitoring Center developed a great deal of work of environmental protection planning and monitoring products, such as Environmental Protection Plan of Key Sea Area, National Marine Environment Quality Bulletin, Status Report on National Coastal Ecological Monitored Area, Bulletin of Aquaculture Environment Quality in Red Tide Monitored Area and so on, which provide strong technical supports to make national development plan of marine industry, to instruct the development of marine economy, to carry out disaster prevention and reduction, and to make science-based policies for marine administration.

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Chapter III:Forge ahead­­- to Monitor and Surveil the Sea Use Trend in Full-scale and Real Time by Facilities of High-precision
With the constant increase of development activities in sea area, the demand for authorizing the sea use quantities and areas is growing rapidly, which brings a lot of troubles to the administration as well as. Under this circumstance, the State Oceanic Administration proposed an assumption to construct the national sea use monitoring and surveillance management system. On April, 2007, National Sea Use Supervising Center was formally established by relying on the Monitoring Center. Since then on, the operation of sea use monitoring and surveillance has become one of the core business of the Monitoring Center.
Since the National Sea Use Monitoring and Surveillance Project initiated, the Monitoring Center has undertaken the operation of organizing and management on national sea use supervising system, made general and annual implementation program for the Project, and developed related technical regulations for monitoring and surveilling by remote sensing in sea use management, etc. Additionally, it also promoted the establishment of local sea use supervising institutions on different levels and guided all these institutions to start their supervising operations.

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Chapter IV:Tamp the Base- to Develop Operations Supported by Marine Science and Technology Researches
In order to realize the objective “ to be the national-level operation center which keeps ahead in our own countryand also comes out top in the world” set up by the leading group of the State Oceanic Administration, the Monitoring Center have attached great importance to exert the supporting and leading effects of science and technology. From the establishment of Institute of Oceanography of Liaoning Branch under the Chinese Academy of Science in 1959 to the founding of Institute of Marine Environmental Protection in 1979, the Monitoring Center had undertook a large number of ocean investigation projects with emphases on the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea. Thereafter, the working focus was transferred from simple environment investigation to researches related to marine environmental protection. During this period, scientific researches in the fields of marine engineering geology, marine environmental chemistry, marine environmental ecology, marine environmental impact assessment, sea use technology and ocean dumping have been developed rapidly.
Since the 1990s, science and technology has played more and more significant role in supporting marine environmental monitoring and protecting, sea use management and other aspects. The number of research projects is rising year by year which leads to rich fruits of science and technology. The Monitoring Center has carried out dozens of projects including National Key Science and Technology Project, National Programs for High Technology Research and Development-863 Project, Specific Project for National Public Welfare, National Technology-Support Project, and projects funded by National Natural Science Foundation. In the meanwhile, the Monitoring Center also has completed some national specific projects such as Survey Program in the Exclusive Economic Zone and Continental Shelf of China, Comprehensive Investigation on Marine Environment in the Northwest Pacific, and Specific Project of Comprehensive Investigation and Assessment in Inshore Area of China Sea-908 Project and so on. In 1998, Key Laboratory of Coastal Ecological Environment of State Oceanic Administration was established by relying on the Monitoring Center, which provides an important platform for researchers to conduct basic and applied researches on ecological environment in coastal areas. On the 20th of December,2008,Key Laboratory of Sea Area Management Technology of State Oceanic Administration was officially established. This key laboratory is the first one in our country which is oriented by national management need of sea area and it focuses on researches on theory and applied technology of sea area management. It will be an important base for technology studying, applying and exchanging and talents training in this field in China.

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Chapter V: Learn from others-to Promote International Cooperation and Exchange
For recent years, the Monitoring Center developed bilateral, multilateral, regional and international marine scientific and technical cooperation and exchange actively in light of its main missions. The Monitoring Center arranged over 300 researchers and managers to go abroad and welcomed above 400 foreign experts to make exchanges and cooperative researches in the field of marine science and technology. It also hosted more than 10 international conferences and training courses as the local organizer. It has established stable cooperative relationships with more than 10 countries such as Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Russia, UK and USA and so on. The Monitoring Center has undertaken and completed nearly 20 bilateral cooperative projects and over 30 projects of introducing technology and management talents into our country from others.

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